Posts Tagged ‘Charles Darwin’

Nick Smith reviews ‘The Shackleton Letters’ in Bookdealer magazine, November 2009 edition

November 5, 2009

Yours faithfully, Ernest Shackleton

Nick Smith reviews

The Shackleton Letters: Behind the Scenes of the Nimrod Expedition

By Regina W Daly, Erskine Press, HB, £27.50

The trouble with history of course is that it’s not really very good at telling you what happened. It creates reputations and myths that so often seem to have so little to do with the facts. When it comes to the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration we are traditionally served up two protagonists – Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton – and as the wheel goes around one takes the ascendancy at the other’s expense. At the moment Scott is in the doghouse and Shackleton is in the firmament, and if you had only read Regina Daly’s The Shackleton Letters you would have no difficulty in seeing why. Whether by accident or design, the way it falls out portrays the Boss, or ‘Shackles’ as he often signs off, as a decent bloke in love with his men, his ship and his wife (in that order), while an imperious (and I think misunderstood) Scott comes across, in the argot of the day, as a thundering ass. Of course, these letters were written a hundred years ago, when people wrote letters and didn’t have phones to shout down, but on the other hand there isn’t and never was any compulsion to write with such vaunting self-aggrandizement as Scott does.

There had always been a history between the merchant seaman and the naval officer. As far back as 1902 Scott is supposed to have called Shackleton a ‘bloody fool’ to which the Irishman retorted: ‘You are the worst bloody fool of the lot, and every time you dare to speak to me like that you will get it back.’ This was on the Discovery (‘National Antarctic’) Expedition 1901-4, where Scott was the leader and Shackleton was his third lieutenant. It seems that this extraordinary insubordination – if it ever took place – was soon overlooked, because by Christmas they were lying in their sleeping bags reading Darwin’s On the Origin of Species to each other (not ‘Origin of the Species’, as Daly erroneously calls it). By the time Shackleton was scouting around drumming up funds for an expedition of his own, their relationship was under strain again due to a conflict over rights to an existing expedition base in Antarctica. Scott’s letters are arch and seem to accuse Shackleton of upstartishness, while Shackleton, who feels more sinned against than sinning, never once loses his thoroughly infectious charm (‘My Dear Captain Scott, To make everything clear as regards our arrangements… I am following your suggestion and writing it down.’) Incidents like this have lead commentators – especially Roland Huntford – to surmise that each man was the antithesis of the other. If only it were this convenient and it were true that Scott was an iconoclast and Shackleton a loveable rogue punching above his weight, how much easier our lives would be. But, the truth is that they were both fallible human beings whose passions for the Polar Regions informed their extraordinary lives and dramatic ends.

Another area where history seems to get Polar exploration all wrong is in its insistence that we remember Shackleton above all else for his impossibly romantic Endurance (‘Imperial Transantarctic’) expedition, 1914-17. This was the one in which he lost his ship in the ice and famously (although not strictly true) never lost a man. With a handful of men, Shackleton set forth in the plucky little whaler – the James Caird – across the seas of the world to fetch relief for his crew. Although this is without doubt one of the greatest stories ever told, we must remember that it was a rescue mission, and that Endurance in essence achieved nothing. As with Dunkirk, the British heart has never been so proud of something that shouldn’t have happened. But on the other hand the earlier Nimrod (‘British Antarctica’) Expedition 1907-1909 – the subject of The Shackleton Letters – was a triumph. Among its many successes were the first ascent of Mount Erebus, the attainment of the South Magnetic Pole and the publication of the first book on the White Continent, Aurora Australis.

As we celebrate Nimrod’s centenary, Daly’s new book couldn’t be better timed or more welcome, especially as the true significance of the expedition seems to have been lost on some sectors of today’s exploration community. In terms of the range and diversity of the material assembled, both written and photographic, it’s hard to see how this anthology could have been any better, although the stickler might complain that it could have been better named. After all, many of the 165 letters, reports and telegrams collected here aren’t by, or to, Shackleton (although in fairness to Daly, they perfectly satisfy the book’s sub-title – ‘Behind the Scenes of the Nimrod Expedition’). In the section of Letters called ‘Kudos, Criticism and Rumours of a New Expedition’ there are epistles from Charles Dorman to Emily Shackleton, from Roald Amundsen to J Scott Keltie, from Robert Scott to Major Leonard Darwin, from Clements Markham to Keltie, from Markham to Darwin, from Fridtjof Nansen to Emily, from Nansen to Darwin, from Markham to H.W.Feilden and even a report from Markham to the Royal Geographical Society (‘letter’ 124). But there is very little either to or from the Boss himself, and while this all makes for interesting – compelling even – background material, it is hardly sufficient to allow for the title The Shackleton Letters. The counter-stickler might argue that this isn’t the first time a book has set sail under the wrong flag, and that to judge a book by its title might be only one step away from judging it by its cover. But titles and covers set up expectations, and here sadly it’s all gone a little bit awry.

For all these niggles, The Shackleton Letters should be on the shelf of anyone interested in the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. This is the first time this collection of documents has appeared between one set of boards, arranged thematically, specifically to deal with the Nimrod expedition, and so it will prove useful to the scholar and the historian for years to come (especially if a second edition is graced with an index). Daly has done a good job tracking down and compiling the material and her historical sketches that set the papers in context are superb distillations of some of the classic Shackleton analyses by the likes of Hugh Robert Mill, Margery and James Fisher, Roland Huntford and Beau Riffenburgh.

Above all The Shackleton Letters is important because it gives the Nimrod expedition the credibility and attention that it so richly deserves, allowing us into the methodology, planning and execution of a grand scale expedition the way it used to be. And it’s quite comforting to realise how little has changed. Behind the scenes there is still the same mad scramble for sponsorship and patronage, the begging letters, the broken agreements, lonely wives and expectant public. Perhaps even more reassuringly, in the wings the cast of explorers still comprises the same unsung geniuses and braying bigheads, dignified elder statesmen and chancy upstarts, men of iron and posturing fraudsters as it did in the Heroic Age. And there’s not a damned thing history can do about that.

Nick Smith is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and a Contributing Editor on the Explorers Journal, the magazine of the Explorers Club in New York

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Nick Smith’s ‘Going Green in the Galapagos’, as featured in Organic Life magazine (full version)

June 19, 2009

Going green in the Galapagos

Travelling to the Galapagos need not mean a guilt trip. There are environmental issues to consider, but your cruise around these equatorial islands to view the stunning array of  wildlife will do far more good than harm. By Nick Smith

There can’t be a single traveller who doesn’t dream of going to the Galapagos. Cast adrift 1000km west of Ecuador, this remote archipelago is perhaps the ultimate wildlife-watching destination. Visited by Charles Darwin in the early 19th century, the Galapagos provided the inspiration for his theory of evolution by natural selection, often said to be mankind’s greatest intellectual achievement. With National Park status, these volcanic islands teem with birdlife, from the impossibly rare lava gull (barely 400 left) to the trademark Blue-footed boobie. The Galapagos is also a living laboratory, home to some of the more bizarre quirks of evolution, from the giant tortoise to the marine iguana. In short, this lonely Pacific eco-system is a symbol of everything that’s right with the planet, and the cradle of conservation.

Of course, it’s not that simple. Darwin barely set foot on Galapagos, and the endemic reptile populations have been unstable ever since mankind discovered the islands and introduced predatory mammal species (the most dangerous of all, of course, being Homo sapiens). The only reason conservation is a word synonymous with the islands is that there is a pressing need for it.

Annexed by Ecuador in 1832, Galapagos has a chequered history, which has come to a head in an almighty ecological tug-of-war over what is the best use of the region. The main players are the science and conservation lobby, the tourism industry, settled Ecuadorian nationals, fishermen and farmers. Each is a powerful group with its own agenda, and each applies pressure to a government itself under pressure from the international community to return the islands to their pristine condition.

Whatever balance is eventually achieved, both tourism and wildlife conservation will play a major part in the islands’ future. Although conservationists will debate the point, there is no need for today’s responsible tourist to feel any guilt about going to the islands – a visit and the revenue it generates can only be a force for good. Despite the fact that scientists want to relieve the pressure on the local environment by reducing tourism, visitors substantially fund their research and provide revenue for the government, while volunteers on projects run by bodies such as Earthwatch even provide the labour. Simply by turning up to the Galapagos and paying your National Park entrance fee, you’ve invested US$100 in the future of this UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Although tourism accounts for 90 per cent of the human traffic on the islands it is not the tourist who causes the most pressure on the environment. The uncomfortable truth is that it is the islands’ settlers – past and present – who have done the most damage. Even though the residents take up only 3% of the land area of the archipelago, ruins of abandoned farms, airbases, factories, salt works and even a football pitch can be clearly seen from San Cristobal to Fernandina, while environmentally friendly cruise ships chug about in the distance keeping the luxury tourist literally at bay. Residents keep dogs, cats, goats and cattle, all of which could have devastating effects on the local wildlife.

For the tourist, the island’s main attraction is of course that wildlife, which is abundant, camera friendly, and quite unlike anything you’ll see anywhere else. For many visitors, the sheer novelty of all these little ecological niches filled from unexpected angles will be the abiding memory of a trip to the Galapagos: lizards that can live in the sea; tortoises that belong to a subspecies dependent on which volcano they inhabit. At the moment the tourism impact is kept to a minimum by there being only 45 landing spots throughout the entire park, which means that much of it never gets visited. In fact, one of the real criticisms of a trip to Galapagos is how regulated the experience is and how little you’re allowed to see. The ‘hiking’ routes are seldom more than a few kilometres along well-marked and well-trodden paths. Guides are with you at all times, and as official park rangers they have the power to arrest you for any transgression of park rules. You cannot linger to take photographs, you will at no time be left alone, and – most importantly – you cannot stray from the path. It’s their job not to trust you, which is frankly annoying when the only possible motivation for visiting these islands is a sincere love of the environment and its wildlife.

Although independent travel around the islands is possible it can be an expensive lottery, and given the restrictions imposed at every turn, this is one of the few times where it can be an advantage to be part of a scheduled package tour. These take the form of boat cruises, which have the important benefit of providing tourists with floating hotels. Although the traditional view of cruising is negative – a pastime of the ‘newly wed and the nearly dead’ – it could have been designed for a sensitive eco-system such as the Galapagos. With draconian regulations regarding waste disposal within the national park, operators are kept on their toes, and many boast of their ‘open bridge’ and transparent environmental policies. Cruises are getting greener and greener. And while the purist will say that these ships leave a huge environmental footprint, their impact is negligible compared with the effect that building a luxury hotel and its required infrastructure would have.

For a start, the number of boats visiting each of the landing sites is carefully monitored to ensure that there isn’t too much traffic at hot spots such as Floreana, Espanola and Bartolome (where Master and Commander was filmed). Secondly, tourists are kept off the land for most of their visit, reducing pressure on the wildlife. They are fed and watered off the islands, the waste gets taken back to mainland Ecuador, and there are no unwanted fires, raves, or fishing or hunting expeditions. Lastly, and by no means least, visiting the Galapagos is an enormously expensive project, well beyond the means of budget travellers, which means that the operators generate high per capita revenue while tourist numbers are regulated by their own disposable income.

The whole Galapagos question is one of compromise, and the future of the islands is in the hands of organisations such as the Galapagos National Park Service and the Charles Darwin Foundation, which manage the park and advise on scientific issues. If they can manage the competing pressures on a sustainable basis, then the endemic wildlife will flourish. If the endemic wildlife flourishes and the right balance between tourism and conservation can be found, then the future of these crucially important islands will be secure.

Heading for Galapagos? Nick’s travel hints…

1. Take a fleece. Even though the Galapagos Islands are on the Equator they can be surprisingly cold due to the cooling effect of the Humboldt current coming up from the Antarctic. In the garua season (June to November) the islands are grey and rainy.

2. If you are taking a film camera calculate how many rolls you think you’ll need for the trip and then double up. Take spare batteries, a tripod and, if using digital equipment, spare memory cards. Wild animals don’t like flash photography.

3. Time spent actually on the islands themselves will be relatively short, perhaps as little as a couple of hours per day. The rest of the time you’ll be chugging between islands, which can be tedious. Make sure you take plenty of books with you.

4. In fact, take everything with you. Don’t rely on ship libraries or on-board shops. They won’t have the right film/sunblock/maps/guidebooks/novels/batteries. And if by some slim chance they do stock what you need, it will be hideously expensive.

5. Do not bring any live material such as seeds, soil or animals to the islands. You will be searched on arrival and offending items will be confiscated, but after that you should be especially careful not to transport plant seeds from island to island.

6. Take good walking boots. Even though you will at no point be allowed to walk far, you will need them to protect yourself from goat’s head or puncture weed (Tribulus cistoides). The spiky seed pods are agony! Remove them from your soles regularly.

7. Keep a diary. In an all too short a time, you’ll see such a variety of islands, birds, endemic plants and other natural wonders that you’ll never remember it all. But you will have plenty of time to keep a diary that will become a treasured possession.

8. If you are going to the Galapagos from the UK you will have made at least SIX flights by the time you get home. You have very little choice in the matter. But you can repay your debt to the environment by carbon-neutralising your air travel.

9. Be an eco-warrior. Not everyone will share your conservationist views on plastic bags, chewing gum, loud noises, flash photography, graffiti and souvenir hunting. You have a duty to obey National Park rules and to explain them to others if need be.

10. Remember to get your passport stamped on the way out by the Galapagos National Park officials at the airport. It’s not an official entry stamp, but it looks cool and is a reminder that you contributed $100 to the conservation of the Galapagos.

Contacts and further reading

Organic Life travelled around the Galapagos Islands on board the Celebrity Xpedition, one of the most environmentally friendly small cruise liners. For further details on cruising the Galapagos visit www.celebritycruises.com

The best general wildlife guide to the islands is the Collins Safari Guide Wildlife of the Galapagos by Julian Fitter, Daniel Fitter and David Hosking

Kurt Vonnegut’s Galapagos, A Novel will while away the hours on the boat

Jonathan R Green’s Galapagos: Ocean, Earth, Wind & Fire is an excellent coffee table book with outstanding wildlife photography

Offset your long-haul carbon emissions at Climate Care www.climatecare.org

Become a Friend of the Galapagos by joining the Galapagos Conservation Trust www.gct.org

Find out more about the Charles Darwin Foundation on www.galapagos.org